How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On

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How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On – A peaceful coup against the Syrian president 10 years ago turned into a real civil war. Half a million people died in the fighting, cities were destroyed and other countries were drawn in.

Even before the fighting began, many Syrians complained about high unemployment, corruption and a lack of political freedom under President Bashar al-Assad, who succeeded his father Hafez after his death in 2000.

How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On

How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On

In March 2011, pro-democracy protests erupted in the southern city of Deraa, inspired by uprisings in neighboring countries against repressive regimes.

Syria’s Paradox: Why The War Only Ever Seems To Get Worse

As the Syrian government used lethal force to quell dissent, protests erupted across the country demanding the president’s resignation.

Unrest spread and repression intensified. The opposition supporters first took up arms to defend themselves and later liberated their areas from the security forces. Mr Assad has vowed to crack down on what he calls “foreign-sponsored terrorism”.

Violence quickly escalated and the country descended into civil war. Hundreds of rebel groups emerged, and the conflict lasted little more than a war between Syrians for or against Mr. Assad. Foreign powers began to take sides, sending money, weapons and fighters, and the chaos led to the involvement of extremist jihadist organizations with their own goals, such as the Islamic State (IS) group and Al Qaeda. This deepened the concern of the international community, which saw them as a major threat.

The Syrian Kurds, who are seeking the right to self-rule but have not fought Assad’s forces, have added another dimension to the conflict.

Years Of Civil War In Syria Shows Few Signs Of Winding Down

The United Nations confirmed that at least 350,209 civilians and combatants were killed between March 2011 and March 2021, but warned that this was an “underestimation”.

The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR), a UK-based monitoring group with a network of sources on the ground, documented 494,438 deaths as of June 2021. At least 159,774 civilians have been killed, with the Syrian government and its allies responsible for most of the deaths.

The group put the actual number of fighters at more than 606,000, said 47,000 civilians were believed to have died as a result of torture in government-run prisons and failed to report nearly 53,000 deaths. Lack of information.

How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On

Another monitoring group, the Violation Documentation Center, which draws on data from activists across the country, has documented 238,716 war-related deaths as of February 2022, including 144,956 civilians. 165,490 people died in Syria. 35,610 to government forces and opposition parties.

Why Has The Syrian War Lasted 11 Years?

The government’s main backers are Russia and Iran, while Turkey, Western powers and several Gulf Arab states have given varying degrees of support to the opposition during the conflict.

Russia – which had military bases in Syria before the war – launched an air campaign in support of Mr Assad in 2015 that was key to turning the tide of the war in the government’s favour.

The Russian military says its strikes only target “terrorists,” but activists say they routinely kill key rebels and civilians.

Iran is said to have deployed hundreds of troops and spent billions of dollars to aid Assad.

How Syrian Civil Society Lost Its Independence In A War Of Conflicting Agendas

Thousands of Shiite Muslim militias armed, trained and financed by Iran – mostly from the Hezbollah movement in Lebanon, but also in Iraq, Afghanistan and Yemen – have fought alongside the Syrian army.

The United States, United Kingdom and France initially supported “moderate” rebel groups. But since the jihadists became the dominant force in the armed opposition, they have prioritized lethal aid.

The US-led global coalition has carried out airstrikes and deployed special forces to Syria since 2014 to help an alliance of Kurdish and Arab militias called the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) in the northeast, once held by IS militants, and prevent regrouping jihadist groups.

How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On

Turkey is a big backer of the opposition but has focused on using rebel groups to contain the Kurdish YPG militia, which dominates the SDF, accusing it of being an extension of the outlawed Kurdish rebel group in Turkey.

America’s Abandonment Of Syria

Turkish troops and allied rebels seized swathes of territory along Syria’s northern border and intervened to halt an all-out assault by government forces on the last opposition stronghold in Idlib.

Saudi Arabia, seeking to counter Iran’s influence, armed and financed the rebels at the start of the war, as did the kingdom’s Gulf rival Qatar.

Meanwhile, Israel is so concerned about Iran’s “military incursion” into Syria and Iran’s arms shipments to Hezbollah and other Shiite militias that it has increasingly launched airstrikes to thwart them.

More than half of Syria’s pre-war population of 22 million have fled their homes. About 6.9 million are internally displaced, with more than two million living in tents with limited access to basic services. Another 6.8 million are refugees or asylum seekers abroad. Neighboring Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey, which host 84%, are struggling to cope with the largest refugee exodus in recent history.

American Led Intervention In The Syrian Civil War

As of February 2022, according to the United Nations, 14.6 million people in Syria required some form of humanitarian assistance, with nearly 5 million classified as people in extreme or catastrophic need. More than 12 million people struggle to find enough food every day – a 51% increase since 2019 – and half a million children are chronically malnourished.

The humanitarian crisis has been exacerbated by severe US sanctions over the past two years, the economic crisis in Lebanon and the unprecedented economic downturn caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. The Syrian currency lost almost 80% of its value in 2021, and hyperinflation, which was close to 140% in early 2022, caused the prices of basic goods to soar. The poverty rate reached an unprecedented 90%.

Syria is also one of the Middle Eastern countries hardest hit by Covid-19, although the true toll is unknown due to limited testing capacity and a crumbling health system. As of March 2022, more than 3,100 confirmed deaths have been reported, with only 7.4% of the population fully vaccinated.

How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On

Entire areas and important infrastructure across the country were also left in ruins. A UN satellite analysis found that more than 35,000 structures were damaged or destroyed in Aleppo city alone before the government recaptured it in late 2016.

Syria: What Is Turkey’s Grand Plan?

And despite their protected status, as of March 2021, Doctors for Human Rights has documented 599 attacks on at least 350 separate health facilities, resulting in the deaths of 930 health workers. As a result of such attacks – most of which have been blamed on the Syrian government and Russia – only half of the country’s hospitals are fully operational.

Much of Syria’s rich cultural heritage has also been destroyed. All six of the country’s UNESCO World Heritage sites were significantly damaged, with IS militants deliberately blowing up parts of the ancient city of Palmyra.

UN war crimes investigators accused all sides of “the most serious violations”. “Syrians,” says a February 2021 report, “have been subjected to extensive aerial bombardment of densely populated areas; they have endured chemical weapons attacks and modern sieges, where criminals deliberately starve the population with medieval scripts and inexplicable and shameful restrictions on humanitarian aid. “.

The government has regained control of Syria’s largest cities, but large parts of the country are still held by rebels, jihadists and the Kurdish-led SDF. The front line hasn’t changed in two years.

How Did The Syrian War Start And Why Is It Still Happening 10 Years Later?

The last remaining strongholds of the opposition are in the northwestern province of Idlib and neighboring parts of northern Hama and the western provinces of Aleppo.

The region is dominated by a jihadist alliance called Hayat Tahrir al-Sham (HTS), but is also home to the main rebel groups. About 2.8 million displaced people live there, including a million children, many of them in harsh conditions in camps.

In March 2020, Russia and Turkey brokered a ceasefire to halt the government’s push to retake Idlib. This has led to a gradual lull in violence, but fighting, airstrikes and shelling have intensified over the past year, particularly in southern Idlib.

How Long Has The Conflict In Syria Been Going On

In the country’s northeast, Turkish forces and allied Syrian rebels launched an offensive against the SDF in October 2019 to create a “safe zone” for the Kurdish YPG militia on the Syrian side of the border, seizing a 120-kilometer (75-mile) stretch.

Why Is There A Civil War In Syria?

The SDF has struck a deal with the Syrian government to end an offensive that has seen the Syrian army return to Kurdish-held areas for the first time in seven years. Despite the presence of Syrian troops, there are still regular clashes between the SDF and Turkish-led forces on the front lines.

The UN Security Council has called for the implementation of the 2012 Geneva Communiqué, which envisages a transitional governing body “formed by mutual consent”.

UN-brokered nine-point peace talks – known as the Geneva II process – have failed to make progress, and President Assad is apparently unwilling to negotiate with political opposition groups who insist he must step down.

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