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Body mass index (BMI) and its facial correlates influence a variety of perceptions, including masculinity and attractiveness. BMI combines body fat and muscle, which are sexually dimorphic because men typically have more muscle but less fat than women. Therefore, we investigated the influence of face correlates of body composition (fat mass and muscle mass) on the perception of masculinity in men’s faces. It has been found that women prefer more masculine-looking men when considering short-term relationships compared to long-term relationships. Therefore, we conducted a second study of heterosexual women’s preferences for facial associations of fat and muscle mass in the context of long and short relationships. We digitally transformed the shape of the face by simulating the effects of increasing and decreasing levels of body fat or muscle, while controlling for each other’s height and age. In Study 1, participants rated the masculinity of male faces with transformed shapes. Face shape correlated with muscle mass significantly improved perceived masculinity, but the correlation of face shape with fat mass affected perceived masculinity only in underweight and low-normal weight men. In Study 2, we asked two groups of women to optimize images of a male face (by adjusting fat and muscle shape associations) to most closely resemble someone they would prefer for a short- or long-term relationship. The results were consistent across both groups of participants: women preferred the appearance of male faces associated with greater muscle mass in short-term compared to long-term relationships. No difference was found in women’s preference for correlations of face shape with fat mass between the two relationship contexts. These findings suggest that facial correlates of body fat and muscle mass have distinct effects on perceptions of male masculinity and female preferences. The findings suggest that body composition should be considered in psychological studies of body weight.
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Research on men’s preference for women’s faces over the past two decades has been marked by conflicting findings. Several studies found that women preferred male faces (e.g., Rhodes et al., 2003; DeBruine et al., 2006; Feinberg et al., 2008; Little et al., 2008; Saxton et al., 2009; Jones et al., 2009. , 2009). al., 2018), while other studies report a preference for femininity in males (eg, Perrett et al., 1998; Penton-Voak et al., 1999; Little et al., 2002; Scott et al. ., 2010) and other studies report no general preference for sexual dimorphism (eg Swaddle and Reierson, 2002; Cornwell et al., 2004).
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Variability in methods has been suggested to account for differences in results (Rhodes, 2006), but in a head-to-head comparison of methods commonly used to measure women’s preferences for male facial masculinity, DeBruine et al. (2006) found that different methods can produce similar results. Alternatively, individual differences in self-rated attractiveness, relationship status, self-reported health, exposure to violence, sensitivity to pathogen disgust, and resource availability may contribute to differences in outcomes (Holzleitner and Perrett, 2017). One factor that has been found to have a consistent effect on women’s preferences for male masculinity is relationship context. Using computer graphics techniques to manipulate masculinity in male facial form, women show a stronger preference for facial masculinity when choosing short-term partners compared to long-term partners (Little et al., 2002; Penton-Voak et al. , 2003; Jones et al., 2018). . Furthermore, this effect of relational context was more pronounced in women with partners and was not found in those using hormonal birth control pills (Little et al., 2002). This preference for masculinity in men as short-term partners has been found with a variety of stimuli and modalities, including face, body, voice, and smell (Little et al., 2011a).
Sexual strategy theory proposes that women have developed different strategies to deal with the different problems they may encounter when pursuing a short-term or long-term relationship (Buss and Schmitt, 1993). Since women’s reproductive success is limited by the resources and protection they can receive from men, women should prefer long-term partners who are more likely to provide paternal care, reliable resources, and protection. Masculinity is perceived to be associated with several negative personality traits, which may explain why women prefer less masculine men as long-term partners. Indeed, perceived facial masculinity has been found to increase perceived dominance (Boothroyd et al., 2007), decrease perceived paternal investment (Boothroyd et al., 2007), and decrease perceived trustworthiness (Perrett et al., 1998). Complementing these findings, several studies have found that high testosterone (the androgen that contributes to male sexual dimorphism) is associated with lower odds of marriage, higher divorce rates, and higher levels of family conflict (Julian and McKenry, 1989; Booth and Dabbs, 1993 Booth et al., 2000). Therefore, less masculine men may be favorable for long-term relationships.
In short-term relationships, women should not be limited by considering investments from the father. Mate choice may therefore be driven by signals for long-term health and a “good gene” for immunity to current widespread pathogens that can be passed on to offspring (Gangestad et al., 2005). Masculinity has been argued to be one clue to good genes as part of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (Folstad and Karter, 1992). This hypothesis states that testosterone has an immunosuppressive effect. Masculine men need a strong immune system to resist the immunosuppressive effect. Therefore, masculinity may signal a strong immune system in men. Although studies investigating the relationship between testosterone and immune function have produced mixed results, a recent cross-species meta-analysis found a moderately large effect from experimental studies artificially increasing testosterone and finding a concomitant decrease in immune function (Foo et al., 2017).
While a significant number of studies have focused on testosterone’s role in suppressing immune function, more importantly, testosterone has also been found to play a key role in maintaining cardiovascular health in men. Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased central adiposity, decreased insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, and elevated cholesterol that occur in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and are detrimental to cardiovascular health (Kelly and Jones, 2013). Although it is debated whether lower testosterone levels directly cause cardiovascular disease or whether reduced testosterone is a byproduct of poor health, clinical studies have found that testosterone replacement therapy is effective in improving health in metabolic syndromes (Elagizi et al., 2018). If masculinity is inherited, masculinity may be the key to actual health and the gene for good health.
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Despite extensive research on the influence of male traits (eg, faces, voices, smells) on attractiveness, few studies have examined the role played by muscles. This is surprising given the fact that higher muscle mass relative to lower fat mass is a typical male trait in humans (Wells, 2007), as testosterone promotes muscle and bone growth (Mooradian et al., 1987). So muscle measurements can be strong signals of masculinity. It follows that women might expect to prefer men with high muscle mass, especially for short-term relationships, as women prefer more masculine-looking men for short-term relationships. In fact, muscular males have been found to be preferred by females and have greater mating success (Frederick and Haselton, 2007).
In addition to the close association between testosterone and muscle mass, muscularity may influence perceptions of masculinity through its association with body size, which is also sexually dimorphic. Men are heavier on average compared to women. Indeed, the faces of men with a higher body mass index (BMI; weight measured by the square of height) are perceived as more masculine than men with a low BMI (Holzleitner et al., 2014). Therefore, muscular men may be perceived as masculine because they have more weight. Since body mass is composed primarily of fat and muscle, this raises the question of whether or not fat mass has a similar effect to muscle mass on male masculinity and attractiveness.
To our knowledge, only one study has examined the role of body composition on perceived attractiveness in male bodies (Brierley et al., 2016). The results of this study suggest that men with levels of body fat and muscle mass in the healthy BMI range are more preferred by women. This study did not examine the context of attractiveness judgments. More importantly, no studies have tested the effects of facial correlates of body composition (fat and muscle) on perceptions of facial masculinity and attractiveness. People rely more on facial attractiveness than physical (bodily) attractiveness when choosing a mate (Currie and Little, 2009). In fact, when women were given a choice, they preferred male faces over bodies when judging dating partners for both short-term and long-term relationships (Confer et al., 2010). These findings highlight the importance of examining the influence of facial body composition cues on attractiveness.
In the present studies, we examine (a) the effect of face correlates of body composition (fat and muscle) on the perceived masculinity of the male face and (b) how face correlates of body composition influence women’s preference for faces masculine in the short term. and long-term relationships.
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Given that testosterone promotes muscle growth, we hypothesized that the correlation of facial muscle mass would be positively related to perceived facial masculinity (Hypothesis 1). From men
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