When Did The Equal Rights Amendment Pass

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When Did The Equal Rights Amendment Pass – 50 years ago the Equal Rights Amendment was passed by the Senate. The United States Senate voted overwhelmingly to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment in 1972, paving the way for the 28th Amendment to the United States Constitution. It was coming together…until it wasn’t.

A large crowd of women cheered on a speaker at the Lincoln Memorial in a demonstration to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment. Bettmann / Bettmann Archive hides the title

When Did The Equal Rights Amendment Pass

When Did The Equal Rights Amendment Pass

A large crowd of women cheered on a speaker at the Lincoln Memorial in a demonstration to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment.

The Equal Rights Amendment: The Most Popular Never Ratified Amendment

50 years ago today, the United States Senate passed the Equal Rights Amendment, following the lead of the House of Representatives and paving the way for what would become the 28th Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Yet the ERA was never added to the Constitution—because Congress also imposed a time limit. He said 38, or 3/4 of the states, had to ratify the proposed amendment in 1979. He later extended the deadline to 1982. So, when in 2020 Virginia becomes the last state needed to ratify the ERA-s, it was also about 40 years late.

Rosie Couture High School didn’t expect it. When he found out about ERA a few years ago, he couldn’t believe it

“At first I was shocked, then I got really angry,” he said. Couture founded Generation Ratify, a youth-led organization to advance gender equality legislation. He believes the advocacy work of Generation Ratify has made a difference in Virginia. “We were protesting outside the Capitol, sending letters, leaving ballots,” he said.

Federal Judge Says States Acted Too Late To Ratify Equal Rights Amendment

Even with Virginia’s electoral votes in the past two years, victory may be a long way off. Five states have tried to block the decision, although it is not clear in the Constitution whether that is possible. There are those who want to push the ERA, and those who want to stop it. Trump’s Justice Department advised that since the deadline had passed, Congress needed to go back to the drawing board. But last year, the House of Representatives passed a unanimous resolution to lift the deadline, which President Joe Biden says he supports.

As written, the idea of ​​equal rights reform is a simple idea. Alice Paul, an American Quaker, first introduced the ERA in Congress in 1923. She rewrote the document in 1943, and the language continues to this day: “Equal rights under the law shall not be denied or denied in America or in brief.” or any state because of sex.”

But discrimination continued. Until 1974, banks made it difficult for women to get credit cards. Until 1978, pregnancy could get you fired.

When Did The Equal Rights Amendment Pass

Jane Mansbridge said, “You may not believe it, but women were not allowed to enter the faculty of Harvard.” He is now a professor at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government and the author of Why We Lost the ERA

What Happened After?: Women’s History (u.s. National Park Service)

“You have to go in through the back door and you have to be accompanied by a man, even if you’re a teacher.”

He said ERA supporters like Mansbridge were optimistic as they watched the amendment pass through the legislature. But then he got to the South, “and Phyllis Schlafly entered the picture.”

Determined and politically astute, Schlafly opposed the ERA. In 1973, Schlafly said, “Because women are the ones who bear the children, and there is nothing we can do about it, our laws and customs make it the husband’s financial responsibility to provide support.” “That’s right and that’s what we’re going to lose if the Equal Rights Amendment is passed,” Schlafly said.

Not all that would change as Schlafly and other ERA opponents claim. Cokie Roberts reported on the fight against ratification in 1979, explaining, “They are worried about the loss of financial support, women in war, shared bathrooms, same-sex marriage and other weird and scary changes in society.”

Doj Rules That Pro Abortion Equal Rights Amendment Is As Dead As A Doornail

Ting Ting Cheng, director of the ERA Project at Columbia Law School’s Center for Gender and Equality, says that today, many of these “extraordinary” changes are legal. “Women in the military, gender-neutral bathrooms, marriage equality, all of those things [Schlafly] said would happen so that people would fear the ERA happened even without the ERA, and this country, I think, is good for him. Cheng said.

If so, why is ERA needed? Mansbridge has an answer: “It’s a principle to do in the Constitution, as are other principles that are important to who we are.”

Kim Forde-Mazrui, director of the Center for Racial and Legal Studies at the University of Virginia, sees it differently. He argued that the Supreme Court’s use of strict scrutiny, based on a reading of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment, leads to a “colorful version” that ignores historical and systemic discrimination.

When Did The Equal Rights Amendment Pass

“The Supreme Court’s decision that race should generally be ignored has effectively blocked policies that could help close the racial gap,” he said.

Poll: Three Quarters Of Americans Support The Equal Rights Amendment

He added that the ERA, as currently written, could lead to the Supreme Court’s treatment of sexism as “sex blindness,” “by striking down policies that are deliberately designed to give women access.”

Many experts believe that the ERA would have had a significant impact if it had been passed during the congressional deadline, ahead of many other sex-discrimination laws. Mansbridge, of Harvard, said one of the reasons it wasn’t passed quickly was because the pro-ERA lobby didn’t want to compromise. She said what her late friend and legal scholar Lani Guinier called “the power of not hearing.”

“The good community is made up of people who are willing to give a lot of time to a cause, and they need to know that they are working for the good, the right and the good,” Mansbridge said. “And they don’t want to hear the opposite. So they can’t really understand what the other side is saying.”

“I struggle with the idea of ​​proposing or agreeing on an equal rights amendment,” he said. However, he is determined to unite his peers in the cause.

Womankind — We’re Still Not Equal

“It’s really important that our voices go out to help light the fire and reach the simple issues that matter to young people that are sometimes left out of the conversation,” he said. he announces plans to surrender the nation’s headquarters in Washington from his desk in the Capitol. He introduced the first version of the Equal Rights Amendment in 1923.

Should men and women have equal rights under the law in America? It’s a simple question with a seemingly simple solution – a constitutional amendment that guarantees equal rights will not be taken away on the basis of sex. But as the thorn in the side of the Equal Rights Amendment shows, convincing the country to accept the amendment proved difficult.

It took nearly a century of fighting to get that reform approved and ratified. Although its approval seems imminent, it may be hindered by a legal challenge. Here’s why equal rights reform didn’t pass—and how it became a controversial issue during the feminist revolution of the 1970s thanks to the powerful politician Phyllis Schlafly.

When Did The Equal Rights Amendment Pass

Although reform is a modern term, the term has been the focus of women’s rights activists since before the Nineteenth Amendment, which granted women the right to vote, was passed in 1920. Suffragist Alice Paul offered the first idea. of the amendment in 1923. He called it the Mott Amendment in honor of Lucretia Mott, one of the founding mothers of the American suffrage movement. Its words were simple: “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and in all jurisdictions.”

Push For Ratification Of The Equal Rights Amendment

The words may have been simple, but voting for a constitution that allowed equal rights for women was anything but. Paul’s supporters proposed the amendment every term of Congress between 1923 and 1943, but it was never passed.

Then, in 1943, he proposed an amendment that used words similar to those used in the Fourteenth Amendment. “Equal rights under the law shall not be denied or abrogated by the United States or any State on the ground of sex,” it said. Now known as the Alice Paul Amendment, it was introduced in every session of Congress between 1943 and 1972.

To appease labor opponents who feared the amendment would undo years of efforts to protect women from discrimination in employment laws, supporters of the amendment sought to add additional language guaranteeing that the new amendment would not completely eliminate existing protections. for women. But the roots of the reform remained the same in the 1970s.

When feminism took hold in the United States, it brought a new wave of support

The Equal Rights Amendment — Equal Rights Amendment

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