Why Has Urban Population Changed In Recent Years – Migration, whether domestic or international, has always been one of the drivers of urban growth and brings opportunities and challenges for cities, immigrants and governments. Local authorities have become increasingly recognized as key players in transport management and have begun to integrate transport into their planning and urban planning.
Traffic and infrastructure data are needed for cities with better traffic management. However, these data are not always available or – if available – are not used or available in the city, whether classified, general or comparative, but especially in low-income countries.
Why Has Urban Population Changed In Recent Years
Data can improve urban planning and public service delivery, as well as help measure progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to cities and transport, implementing global compacts on migration and refugees that emphasize the role of cities as partners. in the field of migration and fulfill the obligations related to migration under the new urban agenda of the UN Habitat.
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These key terms and concepts are important for understanding the city and transport. The list below is not exhaustive:
Urbanization is a definable problem and there is no single universally accepted definition of what constitutes an urban community. What national statistical offices define as “population” varies from country to country and often changes from time to time within countries. Some countries define cities based on population density and population density, while other countries use an administrative definition of what constitutes supply. But others, including many parameters such as the number of workers working in non-agricultural sectors and the availability of infrastructure or education, health and other services (IOM, 2015 and UN, 2018). The size of the urban population varies between one and five thousand people (IOM, 2015).
Urbanization or “urban transformation” refers to “the change of a population dispersed in small rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of the economy, to a population concentrated in larger and denser urban areas characterized by commercial and service activities” (UN, 2018).
Urban population growth is often confused with urbanization, but it is a different concept. Urban growth can occur without urbanization if urban and rural areas grow at the same rate. Urbanization is the increase in the number of people living in urban areas. It is defined as “the increase in urban population over time as a share of the total population. Urban growth comes from population growth and international and internal migration (IOM, 2015).
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Urban-urban migration, rural-urban migration, urban-urban migration and urban-rural migration: These types of migration refer to the movement of people from one village or villages back to another city or rural area. These types of migration may occur within a national border or may involve crossing international borders (IOM Glossary, 2011).
It is also difficult to define a city because what defines a city is different and there are no international standards for urban planning (UN DESA, 2018). There can be multiple border entrances for each city. In general, there are three points:
The majority and growing population of the world lives in cities. The share of the world’s population living in cities is expected to increase from 55 percent in 2018 to 60 percent in 2030 (UN, 2018). In 1950, 30 percent of the world’s population lived in cities (ibid.).
In 2018, North America is the most urbanized region in the world, with 82 percent of its population living in cities. This was followed by Latin America and the Caribbean (81%), Europe (74%) and Oceania (68%) (UN, 2018). The lowest levels of urbanization are found in Asia (50%) and Africa (43%), but there is a large difference in some countries (ibid).
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Many of the fastest growing cities in the world are in Asia and Africa. Between 2018 and 2050, Africa’s urban population is projected to triple and Asia’s to increase by 61 percent, and by 2050 the majority of the world’s population will be concentrated in Asia (52%) and Africa (21%). (UN, 2018).
Urban population growth has been driven by the growth of cities of all sizes. In 2018, 33 megacities hosted 13 percent of the world’s urban population (UN, 2018). It is predicted that by 2030, the number of megacities will increase to 41, with 14 percent of the world’s urban population living in megacities (ibid.).
It is estimated that one in five immigrants lives in only 20 cities – Beijing, Berlin, Brussels, Buenos Aires, Chicago, Hong Kong, China, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Moscow, New York, Paris, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Vienna and Washington DC (IOM, 2015)1. In 18 of these cities, international migrants represent 20 percent of the total population (ibid.).
The share of people born abroad in the total population in some cities significantly exceeds the world total (about 3.5%) (IOM, 2015). Dubai has a foreign-born population of nearly 83 percent, while Brussels has 62 percent, Toronto 46 percent, New York 37 percent and Melbourne 35 percent, to name a few examples (ibid).
Urbanization In The United States
Different modes of transport contribute to the growth and diversity of cities, but to different degrees. In developing countries, one of the main sources of population growth is international migration, while in developing countries, internal migration (IOM, 2015) appears to be accompanied by more births than deaths.
In some countries, migration to rural areas and the reclassification of what is considered urban together account for more than half of urban growth, such as China and Thailand (80%), Rwanda (79%), Indonesia (68%) and Namibia (59 ). %) (UN, 2018). Return flights and stopovers are located in many cities in Asian and African countries, especially in China and India, as well as in Ghana and Kenya (ibid.).
There are traffic data as well as city data. What is harder to find is reliable, comparable and complete data that combines all traffic information and the city.
The lack of general information on urban mobility (availability and accessibility), especially in low-income countries, may reflect (1) the long-standing focus on the country as the unit of analysis in mobility studies and policy, and (2) the wide divergence between national and local policies in collecting information on immigration management purposes.
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Censuses generally capture urban data on immigrant populations over ten years or more; the data collected is primary and aggregated. Censuses can underestimate immigrants because they often do not include data on immigrants and immigrants living in urban or urban-rural areas. Censuses also capture urban immigration data by recording changes in individual settlements over time.
Population registers also record data on migration to the city and the distribution of immigrants. Compared to statistics, data captured through population registers are more up-to-date, regularly updated and provide better demographic and socioeconomic information. Similar to the census, population registers generally do not capture data on disabled migrants. Population registers are also available in several countries – usually in more developed parts of the world.
Surveys can capture data on the level of domestic and international migration in a city and provide detailed information on immigrants, rather than censuses and population registers. For example, the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) can provide data on foreign health outcomes and urban food information. DHS can also provide data on intra-urban migration and, in a few cases, on international migration to rural areas. In addition, labor market surveys can provide information on the economic outcomes of immigrants and can be used to measure the integration of foreigners.
Compared to censuses and population registers, surveys better capture underreported migrants, such as irregular migrants, and facilitate the identification of migrant groups such as women, children and refugees.
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Administrative data sources such as neighborhood statistics, residence permits, and natural resources can capture information on internal and external migrants at the city level, but they are incomplete, perhaps not always, provide space, do not capture immigrants, and may overpopulate immigrants.
Globalization, Urbanization and Migration (GUM) website – Although clear, comparable global data on urbanization and migration do not exist, the GUM Global Urban Database is a first attempt to create one. Based on national and UN urbanization data, the database contains urban travel measurement data for over 150 major cities (over 1 million people) in over 50 countries). The data includes traditional immigrant entry cities and emerging destinations.
The Global Urban Observatory (GUO) at UN Habitat is a specialized statistical unit that supports data collection and analysis of urban indicators. GUO also manages the Global Urban Indicator database and supports monitoring and reporting on the New Urban Agenda and SDG 11, which aim to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.
Statistics on cities and travel show that travel is driving – and will continue to drive – the growth and diversity of cities. However, some limitations in migration data and data linking migration and urbanization prevent researchers and policy makers from fully understanding the impact of migration on cities and how migrants are affected when they move to a city. Such records – also political will
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