Why Was The Revival Of Trade So Important – [1/3] People walk across the Simon Bolivar International Bridge on the border of Colombia and Venezuela as newly elected Colombian President Gustavo Petro tries to normalize relations and increase trade with Venezuela, as seen from Villa del Rosario, Colombia, on June 28, 2022. Image taken on June 28, 2022. /Carlos Eduardo Ramirez
CUCUTA, Colombia/SAN ANTONIO, Venezuela, Jul 8 () – Leftist Colombian President-elect Gustavo Petro pledged on the campaign trail to end the separatism of neighboring Venezuela, normalize relations with the socialist government in Caracas and revive trade.
Why Was The Revival Of Trade So Important
Carolina Moros, co-owner of a biodegradable cleaning company in the Colombian border city of Cucuta, said, “It’s very important and maybe essential for our society that this border is open.
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His company, which he co-owns with another Colombian and two Venezuelans, has reduced its workforce from 23 to just two over the past year after financial woes forced it to lay off workers.
Petro, Colombia’s first leftist president since taking office in August, has pledged to fully reopen the border with Venezuela as part of a cooling of diplomatic ties. The timing of the reopening is unclear.
Although people can now cross on foot, vehicles have not been able to legally cross since 2015. Business owners and leaders in Colombia and Venezuela say fully opening the border would provide an economic lifeline for companies on both sides.
In Venezuela, textile, shoe and leather goods factories and bakeries, among others, require raw materials not available in the domestic market.
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Some business owners buy smuggled supplies from Colombia, which increases costs and puts them in contact with criminal gangs.
From Cucuta, on the Venezuelan side of the border, in San Antonio, laundromat owner Luis Arias hopes to once again legally obtain the cleaning supplies and chemicals he needs.
Trade between the two countries was $7 billion in 2008, but fell after then-Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez suspended investment in opposition to a military pact between Colombia and the United States.
Analysts and business owners say it will take time to get the business off the ground that needs to be established and trust restored.
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“It is not easy for entrepreneurs to invest in the Venezuelan market, until they are sure that they will benefit,” said Mauricio Santamaria, director of economic think tank ANIF.
For example, payments are initially required in advance, said Noralba Perez, sales director for ceramics company Tejar de Pescadero, which made 30% of its sales in Venezuela before the borders closed.
David Silva, representative of the economic development agency in Venezuela’s Tachira state, said diplomatic staff needed to be appointed to revive agreements and restore standards.
Still, Victor Mendez, director of the Colombo-Venezuelan Chamber in East Cucuta, estimates that reopening the border could create 120,000 jobs within a year.
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“If we can attract new customers and move our goods, which will allow us to create jobs, we will contribute to reducing the high level of informal work in our city,” he said.
Reporting by Nelson Bocanegra in Cucuta and Angie Polanco in San Antonio; Written by Oliver Griffin; Published nearly a century after its first publication in 1925 by Rosalba O’Brien, Medieval Cities is one of the most provocative works of medieval history ever written. Henri Pirenne argues here that it was not the invasion of Germanic tribes that destroyed the civilization of antiquity, but rather the closing of Mediterranean trade by the Arab conquest in the seventh century. The subsequent disruption of long-distance trade hastened the decline of Europe’s ancient cities. Pirenne challenges conventional wisdom by attributing the origins of medieval cities to the revival of trade and tracing their growth from the tenth to the twelfth centuries. It illustrates the central role of the middle class in the development of the modern economic system and modern culture.
This Princeton Classics edition of Medieval Cities, with a new introduction by Michael McCormick, is essential reading for all students of medieval European history.
Henri Pirenne (1862-1935) was an emeritus professor at Ghent University and one of the world’s foremost historians. His books include Muhammad and Charlemagne and Economic and Social History of Medieval Europe. Michael McCormick is the Francis Goulet Professor of Medieval History at Harvard University.
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Praise for the previous edition: “An indispensable addition to the confusing history of the Carolingian period and the early days of European civil development. . . . In short, it is one of the finest contributions of its kind to historical writing—it combines simplicity with erudition and imagination with precision.” — New Statesman (London)
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Stay connected for new books and special offers. Subscribe and get 40% off a free e-book or audiobook with your first order. Chapter 2 The Expansion of Trade in Late Ottoman Cairo and Damascus: The Trade and Creative Recycling of Antiquities in Cairo and Damascus 1850–1890
The growing attraction of Islamic collections in Europe and America created a pattern among those who visited or lived in the Middle East: the practice of collecting antiquities locally and transporting them back home. Artifacts in demand were often secured through formal trade. From the mid-nineteenth century, all indicators suggest that Cairo and Damascus were active markets for Islamic artefacts, although information is fragmentary and unevenly distributed. Evidence of trade in antiquities exists
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Egypt, but it mostly refers to “Egyptian” objects, i.e. ancient fragments obtained primarily during excavations, but also in villages near the ruins.1 Comparable records are not available for Islamic artefacts produced under the reigns of the Fatimids, Ayyubids, Mamluks. , etc. or Ottoman rule. However, some of Cairo’s evidence for Damascus can be gleaned from a variety of sources: Western travelogues, Arabic encyclopedias, scholarly articles, museum archives, private correspondence, and photographs. The following is an attempt to bring together this scattered information. At a minimum, the material enables the formulation of significant timelines, primary sites, unique providers, and unique objects; It also gives several clues about the origin of the material.
To conclude, the development of the historical goods trade followed different paths in Cairo and Damascus. In Egypt, the market is mainly focused on archaeological finds obtained during excavations; Islamic artefacts represent minimal trade in comparison. Indeed, the supply of Islamic period objects is more limited in Cairo than in Damascus. Indeed, established dealers specializing in Islamic artwork later appeared in the Egyptian city. In contrast, the Syrian capital was home to traders of Islamic curiosities from at least the 1850s, and for many decades was the most famous place for the quantity and quality of antiquities available, be they weapons, ceramics, metalwork or architectural defences. Most Syrian travelogues feature the opulence of the bazaars, lavish displays, and opulence of damascene merchants. 2 The products, old and new, range from locally produced “silk and embroidered shawls” to “carpets and curiously carved ornaments and coffins from Persia; Hind and Kashmir shawls; weapons of every form and character, richly ornamented with gold and precious stones. Both seem to have catered to the same customers. Few goods Pilgrims from Baghdad and further east arrived in caravans; thousands were ferried to Damascus each year seeking to join the official convoys under the protection of the Ottoman sultan. On their way to or from Mecca, they brought goods with them for trade. Eastern goods of myriad origins circulated along the routes to the Holy City.4 The arrival of steamships in the 1840s. Later the number of caravans declined, but the transit trade remained important to the economy of Damascus, even after imported European goods dominated the trade flow.5 The city remained a center for the exchange of second-hand goods. A Middle Eastern bazaar proposed by a tourist guide in 1907. In the hierarchy, Damascus was undoubtedly first, but the souks of Cairo were considered “inferior to Constantinople”.
The first reference to the trade in second-hand goods in late Ottoman Cairo appears in the fifth edition of the Classic.
, 7, written by Edward William Lane in 1833-35 after a long residence in the city. The text was greatly expanded in 1860 by Edward Stanley Poole, his nephew, based on the author’s original notes. Among the additions, a note clarifies the practice of auctioning used goods or clothing on the streets of Cairo:
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In many of Cairo’s bazaars, auctions are held once or twice a week on fixed days. They are operated by “dellales” (or brokers), who are employed by private individuals or merchants to sell anything they wish to sell in this way; And buyers belong to both these categories. “Dellâls” carry goods up and down, announcing the amount given by shouts of “Harag” or “Haraz,” etc.
) was a crier who loudly advertised used goods for sale on the streets of Cairo, a practice that amounted to
They are exclusively Turkish; It was a task
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